Sahel’s Power Play: Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso signs Security Treaty

Maya Onga Author and Columnist
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Sahel’s Power Play: Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso Treaty against Unrest and External Threats

In the vast expanse of the African Sahel, change is afoot. The states of Mali, Burkina Faso, and Niger, bearing the brunt of both internal revolts and external aggressions, have come together to ink a historic pact: the Alliance of Sahel States. As they stand at the confluence of shared geography and shared adversity, these nations are turning the tides of the challenges that they face, collectively.


  • Mali, Burkina Faso, and Niger form the Alliance of Sahel States for mutual defense and cooperation.
  • The territorial integrity underpinning the alliance promises a collective response against any aggression.
  • The Liptako-Gourma region, a hotbed of revolt, emerges as the central nexus for the tri-nation collaboration.
  • Tensions with France rise as Sahel states navigate through coups, terrorism, and regional politics.

This past Saturday marked the formalization of this powerful charter. At the core of the agreement is the principle of mutual defense. An assault on one signatory state is perceived as an affront to the other two, thereby establishing a robust tri-nation response mechanism. This dynamic not only fortifies their defenses against external threats but also acts as a deterrent to internal armed rebellions. The commitment is clear: these states shall no longer stand isolated in the face of adversity; they shall rise, or if it comes to it, fall together.

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The epicenter of this alliance is the Liptako-Gourma region, a territory where the borders of Mali, Burkina Faso, and Niger intersect. Unfortunately, this area has also been a hotspot for armed insurgencies in recent years. The very decision to name the treaty after this region underscores the nations’ commitment to its security and prosperity.

The highly symbolic signing ceremony was not without its dignitaries. Mali’s military chief, Assimi Goita, took to his X account to share his pride in signing the Liptako-Gourma charter alongside the leaders of Burkina Faso and Niger. He emphasized the core ethos of this new alliance – a framework for collective defense and mutual support.

However, this mutual commitment goes beyond just military might. In a press conference in Bamako, Mali’s defense minister, Abdoulaye Diop, shed light on the multi-faceted nature of the alliance. He described it as “a combination of military and economic efforts between the three countries,” with the prime focus being the eradication of terrorism that plagues their lands.

Read more : Niger Challenges ECOWAS: Legal Action on the Horizon?

But this is not the first time the Sahel region has witnessed collaboration. Rewind to 2012, when an uprising in northern Mali spiraled out, engulfing both Niger and Burkina Faso by 2015. Recognizing the need for a collective response, these nations, along with Chad and Mauritania, formed a joint force in 2017. Their aim was to curb the growth and influence of armed factions allied with formidable forces like al-Qaeda and ISIL (ISIS). This operation had the vital backing of France, a long-time ally, and influencer in the region.

Sahel’s Power Play: Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso Treaty against Unrest and External Threats

But relations with Western powers have not always been straightforward. Take Niger, for instance. The country’s president, Mohamed Bazoum, who once actively collaborated with the West against the Sahel-based armed groups, was abruptly removed from power through a military coup just this past July. The echoes of this upheaval reached the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), which hinted at potential military interventions in Niger.

This did not sit well with Mali and Burkina Faso, which quickly voiced their dissent. They went so far as to label any such intervention as tantamount to a “declaration of war” on their own nations.

The undercurrents of these shifts have had pronounced effects on the region’s ties with France. Relations have become increasingly taut, with the Sahel states demanding the withdrawal of French forces from their territories. France’s refusal to recognize Niger’s new military government further soured the already fragile relations. Mali followed suit, calling for the exit of the United Nations peacekeeping mission, MINUSMA.

Yet, amidst these diplomatic skirmishes, the shadows of insurgency continue to loom large. Recent reports from Mali indicate that armed factions, predominantly comprising the Tuareg ethnic group, have reignited their campaigns, jeopardizing a peace agreement painstakingly put together in 2015.

In these turbulent times, the Alliance of Sahel States offers a glimmer of hope. While the road ahead is fraught with challenges, this tri-nation collaboration signals a renewed determination to confront and conquer, together.